TACS  Delivers the Insight and Vision on Technology for Strategic Decisions


Home ] Up ] TACS Hizmetleri ] TACS Yetkinlikleri ] TACS Pazarları ] TACS Hakkında ] Bağlar ] İçerik ] Ara ]
6. His ] [ Politikalar ] Bilişim Teknolojileri ] Haberleşme Pazarı ] İT ] SASİ ] GTASİ ] AnaYurt Güvenliği ] Enerji ] Ekonomi ]


Telekom Zirvesi

BİT (Bilgi ve İletişim Teknolojileri) Politikaları


  • Bilim-teknoloji politikaları ve 21. yüzyılın toplumu. İsmail Hakkı Yücel. Ankara: Devlet Planlama Teşkilatı. Sosyal Sektörler ve Koordinasyon Genel Müdürlüğü. Araştırma Dairesi Başkanlığı, Temmuz 1997. ISBN 975-19-1806-5
    ( http://ekutup.dpt.gov.tr/bilim/yucelih/biltpo.html )
  • Sekizinci Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planı: Bilim ve Teknoloji Özel İhtisas Komsiyonu raporu . Ankara: DPT, 2000. (DPT. 2528 - ÖİK. 544) ISBN 975-19-2556-8
    ( http://ekutup.dpt.gov.tr/bilim/oik544.pdf, http://ekutup.dpt.gov.tr/bilim/oik8/ )
  • Sekizinci Beş Yıllık Kalkınma Planı: Biyoteknoloji ve Biyogüvenlik Özel İhtisas Komsiyonu raporu . Ankara: DPT, 2000.
    ( http://ekutup.dpt.gov.tr/bilim/oik533.pdf )
  • Türkiye'de Bilim Teknoloji Politikaları ve İktisadi Gelişmenin Yönü. Ankara: DPT, Sosyal Sektörler ve Koordinasyon Genel Müdürlüğü. Haziran 2006.
    ( http://ekutup.dpt.gov.tr/bilim/yucelih/bilim.pdf)

Telecommunications policy in Turkey: Dismantling barriers to growth



Modern telecommunications technology is now widely seen as a critical driver in economic development. However, the issues involved in the rapid deployment of this technology are complex and frequently highly controversial. While some issues are technical, the most difficult ones involve changing an institutional framework originally designed for different times and different technologies. The process of changing this framework necessarily involves disruptive change for existing infrastructure and service providers as well as substantial benefits for the economy at large. This paper, based on an extensive series of interviews in Turkey in 2005 as well as published sources, seeks to discuss these issues in light of Turkey's progress to date in taking advantage of advanced available telecommunications technology and the myriad productivity-enhancing services that are associated with it. An important element in developing a more competitive and dynamic sector has been Turkey's long-standing desire to become a member of the European Union (EU). This has encouraged changes in the telecommunications regulatory regime following the guidelines set out in Chapter 19 of the EU ''acquis'' for candidate members. Nonetheless, substantial further efforts are needed to complete and implement the desired regulatory framework, particularly as it affects the former government monopoly carrier, Turk Telekom and the cable companies. A further limiting factor in recent years has been an overall investment climate characterized by a high level of uncertainty for most investors, regardless of size or nationality. Policy recommendations to help accelerate the deployment of telecommunications technology include a clear reaffirmation of the government's priorities for the sector, a reduction in the level of regulatory uncertainty, strengthening the Board and Staff of the Telecommunications Authority, and reviewing policies to broaden the scope and decrease the cost of telecommunication licenses.




James B. Burnham

Donahue Graduate School of Business, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA




Telecommunications Policy

Volume 31,  Issue 3-4  (April 2007), Pages: 197-208, ISSN:0308-5961, Pergamon Press, Inc. Tarrytown, NY, USA




  1. Atiyas (2005).          Atiyas, I. (2005). Competition and regulation in the Turkish Telecommunications Industry. Sabanci University Discussion Paper Series in Economics: 2005-2005.
  2. Burnham (2003).       Why Ireland Boomed. The Independent Review. vVII i4. 537-556.
  3. Europe (2002a).       Directive 2002/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 March 2002 on a common regulatory framework for electronic communications networks and services (Framework Directive). Official Journal of the European Communities. vL108. 33-50.
  4. Europe (2002b).       Directive 2002/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2002 on competition in the markets for electronic communications networks and services. Official Journal of the European Communities. vL249. 21-26.
  5. Europe (2004a).       Europe (2004a). European Commission. "2004 Regular Report on Turkey's Progress Towards Accession." COMM (2004) 656 Final (6 October 2004).
  6. Europe (2004b).       Europe (2004b). European Commission. "European Electronic Communications Regulation and Markets 2004." SEC (2004)1535 (2 December 2004).
  7. Europe (2005).         Europe (2005). European Commission. Press Release: "Key findings of the 2005 Progress Reports on Croatia and Turkey." Memo/05/411 (9 November 2005).
  8. Evci, Ciliz, Anarim, & Sankur (2004).          Wireless networks in Turkey: A jewel in the crowd. Alcatel Telecommunications Review, 3rd Quarter 2004. 1-7.
  9. Jordana, Levi-Faur, & Imma (2005).          Jordana, J., Levi-Faur, D., & Imma, P. (2005). The limits of Europeanization: Regulatory reforms in the Spanish and Portuguese Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors. European Integration online papers, 9(10) URL: {http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/2005-010a.htm}.
  10. Norton (1992).         Transactions costs, telecommunications, and the microeconomics of macroeconomic growth. Economic Development and Cultural Change. v41 i1. 175-196.
  11. McKinsey Global Institute (2003).    McKinsey Global Institute. (2003). Turkey: Making the productivity and growth breakthrough {http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/turkey/Turkey.pdf}.
  12. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] (2002). Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] (2002). Regulatory reform in the [Turkish] Telecommunications Industry, Paris.
  13. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] (2003). Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] (2003). Communications outlook, Paris.
  14. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] (2005). Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development [OECD] (2005). Communications outlook, Paris.
  15. Roller & Waverman (2001).   Telecommunications infrastructure and economic development: A simultaneous approach. American Economic Review. v91 i4. 909-923.
  16. Turkcell (2005).        Turkcell. (2005). Press release. 2005 Operating Results. URL: {http://www.turkcell.com.tr/announcements/announcements_2006_0227_4Q05_Final.pdf}.
  17. Wallace (2005).       Broadband access: Powerline potential. Telecommunication Americas. v39 i4. 12-13.

When good intentions are not enough: Sequential entry and competition in the Turkish mobile industry



A decade into the liberalization of the Turkish mobile industry, the sector remains one of the most concentrated in Europe. This paper analyzes the links between the regulatory environment and competitive outcomes in the Turkish context. The paper argues that 7 years of duopoly incumbency resulted in a significant first-mover advantage. It then focuses on the role of the regulatory tools that could potentially restrain the incumbent operators' first-mover advantage and stimulate competition: national roaming, interconnection regulation, and number portability.




İzak Atiyas   Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanlı Tuzla, Istanbul 81474, Turkey 

Pınar Doğan   John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA 




Telecommunications Policy

Volume 31, Issue 8-9  (September 2007), Pages 502-523, ISSN:0308-5961 

Publisher Pergamon Press, Inc.  Tarrytown, NY, USA 




  1. Atiyas (2005).  Atiyas, I. (2005). Competition and regulation in the Turkish telecommunications industry. Available at {http://www.tepav.org.tr}. 
  2. Binmore & Klemperer (2001).  Biggest auction ever: The sale of the British 3G telecom licenses. Economic Journal. v112. 73-96. 
  3. Bourreau, Hombert, Pouyet, & Schutz (2006).  Bourreau, M., Hombert, J., Pouyet, J., & Schutz, N. (2006). Wholesale markets in telecoms. Mimeo. 
  4. Buehler, Dewenter, & Haucap (2006).  Mobile number portability in Europe. Telecommunications Policy. v30. 385-399. 
  5. Burnham (2006).  James B. Burnham, Telecommunications policy in Turkey: Dismantling barriers to growth, Telecommunications Policy, v.31 n.3-4, p.197-208, April, 2007  [doi>10.1016/j.telpol.2007.01.007] 
  6. Calzada & Valletti (2005).  Calzada, J., & Valletti, T. (2005). Network competition and entry deterrence. C.E.P.R. discussion paper no. 5381. 
  7. Dewenter & Haucap (2006).  Incentives to license virtual mobile network operators (MVNOs). In: Dewenter, R., Haucap, J. (Eds.), Access pricing: Theory and practice, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. pp. 305-325. 
  8. Dutz, Us, & Yilmaz (2005).  Turkey's foreign direct investment challenges: Competition, the rule of law, and EU accession. In: Hoekman, B., Togan, S. (Eds.), Turkey: Economic reform and accession to the European Union, World Bank Publication, Washington, DC. 
  9. European Commission (2003).  European Commission. (2003). Technical annexes of the ninth report on the implementation of the telecommunications regulatory package. Annex 1: Market Overview, SEC(2003)1342. 
  10. European Commission (2004).  European Commission. (2004). Annex to the European electronic communications regulation and markets 2004. 10th Report: Annex 3 Market overview, SEC (2004) 1535. 
  11. European Commission. (2006).  European Commission. (2006). Annex to the communication from the commission to the council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of The Regions European Electronic Communications Regulation and Markets 2005. 11th Report, Vol. 2. {Com(2006)68 Final} SEC(2006)193. 
  12. Farrell & Klemperer (2004).  Farrell, J., & Klemperer, P. (2004). Coordination and lock-in: Competition with switching costs and network effects. Available at {www.paulklemperer.org}. 
  13. Foros, Hansen, & Sand (2002).  Demand-side spillovers and semi-collusion in the mobile communications market. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade. v2 i3. 259-278. 
  14. Gabrielsen & Vagstad (2005).  Gabrielsen, T.S., & Vagstad, S. (2005). Why is on-net traffic cheaper than off-net traffic? Available at {http://www.uib.no/people/sectg/entry2005july7.pdf}. 
  15. Gans & King (2001).  Using bill and keep interconnect arrangements to soften network competition. Economics Letters. v71. 413-420. 
  16. Gruber (1999).  An investment view of mobile telecommunications in the European Union. Telecommunications Policy. v23. 521-538. 
  17. Intug (2003).  Intug (2003). Position paper on national roaming, 2003/2. Available at {http://www.intug.net/views/national_roaming.html}. 
  18. Is Investment. (2005).  Is Investment. (2005). Company updates: Turkcell, 11 April 2005. Available at {http://www.isteyatirim.com/periodic-reports/company/TCELL_050411_TR.pdf}. 
  19. Kibar (2005).  Kibar, Y. S. (2005). Setting fees for access and interconnection services during the process of liberalization in the telecommunications industry. Expert thesis, Telecommunications Authority, Ankara (in Turkish). 
  20. Laffont, Rey, & Tirole (1998).  Network competition II: Price discrimination. Rand Journal of Economics. v29. 38-56. 
  21. Merrill Lynch. (2004).  Merrill Lynch. (2004). Global wireless matrix 2Q04. 
  22. OECD. (2002).  OECD. (2002). Regulatory reform in Turkey: Regulatory reform in the telecommunications industry. Available at {www.oecd.org/regrefom/backgroundpapers}. 
  23. OECD (2005).  Communications outlook 2005. OECD, Paris. 
  24. Peitz (2005).  Peitz, M. (2005). Asymmetric regulation of access and price discrimination in telecommunications. Working paper 28/2005, School of Business Administration, International University in Germany. 
  25. Rey & Jullien (2004).  Rey, P., & Jullien, B. (2004) Mobile to mobile call termination. In Regulating mobile call termination. Vodafone Policy Paper Series, No. 1. 
  26. Shy (2002).  A quick-and-easy method for estimating switching costs. International Journal of Industrial Organization. v20. 71-87. 
  27. Turkiye Vakiflar Bankasi. (2001).  Turkiye Vakiflar Bankasi. (2001). Telecommunications sector. Sector Reserach Series No. 25 (in Turkish). 
  28. Valetti (2003).  Is mobile telephony a natural monopoly?. Review of Industrial Organization. v22. 47-65. 
  29. Yilmaz (2000).  Türk Telekomünikasyon Sektöründe Refom: Özelleştirme, Düzenleme ve Serbestleşme. In: Atiyas, I. (Ed.), Devletin Düzenleyici Rolü, TESEV, Istanbul. 




Home ] Up ] Telekom Zirvesi ] Telkoder ]


Copyright © 1997-2014 TACS
Last modified: July 13, 2016

The Best Networks Start with the Best Consultants, TACS